India and the United States on Tuesday (October 27th) signed the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) which, together with the two previously signed agreements – the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Understanding (LEMOA) and the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) – completes a troika of “basic pacts” for deep military cooperation between the two countries. India and the United States will sign the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA), the last of four so-called basic agreements for the exchange of sensitive information, the sale of advanced military equipment and cooperation in geospace, at the 2+2 ministerial dialogue on Tuesday ahead of the US presidential election on November 3. U.S. Secretary of State Michael Pompeo and Defense Secretary Mark Esper hold talks with their respective counterparts Foreign Minister S Jaishankar and Secretary of Defense Rajnath Singh. And what is the overall picture of the signing of these fundamental pacts with the United States and of the future? LEMOA was followed by the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA), signed on 6 September 2018 at the first 2+2 Ministerial Meeting between India and the United States. Esper said: “The defence relationship between our two countries remains an important pillar of our comprehensive bilateral relations. Based on our common values and interests, we stand side by side and support a free and inclusive Indo-Pacific, especially in the face of China`s growing aggression and destabilizing activities. • The BECA agreement will also help reduce India`s military division with China in the wake of India-China border tensions. India and China have been at an impasse on the border since April-May after the Chinese People`s Liberation Army invaded several areas of Indian territory. BECA will facilitate an expanded exchange of geoinformation between the armed forces. It has not yet been signed due to disagreements on the issue of reciprocity in the exchange of information.

The basic exchange and cooperation agreement between India and the United States, signed on Tuesday, complements the four founding documents needed to advance defense relations. Explained in 10 points The signing of BECA results from the signing of three other key pacts between the two countries, which have been identified as crucial for the significant expansion of strategic relations. The first of the Quartet is called the Comprehensive Agreement on Military Information Security (GSOMIA), which was signed by both countries in 2002. GSOMIA provides for specific measures to ensure security standards for the protection of critical information shared by the United States with India. In a major move in 2016, the US designated India as a “key defense partner” to elevate defense and technology trade to a level equivalent to that of its closest allies and partners. The two countries signed the Memorandum of Understanding for Logistics Exchange (LEMOA) in 2016, which allows their armed forces to use each other`s bases to repair and replenish supplies and ensure deeper cooperation. LEMOA allows the U.S. and Indian militaries to recover from their respective bases and access supplies, spare parts, and services from each other`s land facilities, air bases, and ports, which can then be reimbursed. The BECA deal was negotiated between India and the US for more than a decade, as the previous UPA administration was concerned about whether it would affect India`s national security, as the bilateral agreement also expects India to share similar data with the US. This agreement is one of the few fundamental agreements that the United States is signing with its close partners. Under the BECA agreement, U.S.

forces will provide advanced aids to navigation and avionics, and share geospatial information with India to increase the accuracy of the Indian Army`s automated hardware systems and weapons such as drones, cruise missiles and ballistic missiles. The signing of COMCASA paved the way for the transfer of communications security equipment from the US to India to facilitate “interoperability” between their armed forces – and possibly with other militaries using US-origin systems for secure data connections. The data obtained under the agreement will be relevant to India`s northern and western borders, which will be crucial given the current geopolitical situation. The deal had been on hold for more than a decade and a half after the previous United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government failed to sign it because left-wing parties that were part of the coalition strongly opposed close ties with the United States. • The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) for Geospatial Cooperation is primarily a proposed communication agreement between the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency of the United States Department of Defense and the Union Department of Defense. The agreement will allow the U.S. Armed Forces to provide advanced financial navigational aids and geospatial information that will improve the accuracy of automated hardware systems and weapons such as cruise missiles, ballistic missiles, and military drones. BECA will also help India and the US counter China`s growing influence in the Indo-Pacific region, strengthening the quad. The deal will also help India at a time of stalemate with the Chinese military in Ladakh. A high-level legal team from the United States had also come to New Delhi to address the concerns of indian authorities. The agreement was then signed during the sixth round of the meeting between Parrikar and then-US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter on August 29, 2016.

LEMOA has great advantages for India and the United States, especially in naval cooperation. The strategic agreement allows partners to make their military and strategic assets, such as warships and other facilities, accessible to each other, which requires building mutual trust. It took nearly a decade to negotiate LEMOA, and the exercise somehow closed the trust gap between India and the US and paved the way for the other two pacts. Under the agreement, the United States would share technical and procedural information with India on the standardization of methods, specifications, and formats for the collection, processing, and production of geo-intelligence information. • BECA is the last of four fundamental agreements signed between India and the United States to strengthen defence relations. The other three agreements include: The strengthening of cooperation mechanisms between the two militaries should be seen in the context of an increasingly aggressive China that has threatened a large number of countries in its neighborhood and beyond, and has questioned several established norms and aspects of international relations. .